Vibiz Regional Investment Index (VRII), Atasi Kekusutan Investasi Daerah

Era desentralisasi pemerintah melalui otonomi daerah sejak tahun 1999 membangkitkan kesadaran putra daerah untuk membawa kemajuan bagi daerah masing-masing, indikator-indikator kemajuan perekonomian menjadi perhatian para kepala daerah. Kesadaran ini termasuk bahwa pembangunan daerah memerlukan masuknya penanaman modal dalam negeri atau penanaman modal asing ke daerah.

Namun dalam berjalannya waktu, ada sejumlah masalah yang menjadi kontra produktif pertumbuhan investasi daerah yang patut dibenahi, masalah-masalah tersebut umumnya termasuk dalam hal-hal berikut ini :

  • Masalah regulasi karena adanya konflik norma, tumpang tindih, multitafsir, tidak efektif, tidak dapat diimplementasikan.
  • Masalah kelembagaan berkaitan dengan tupoksi instansi terkait investasi di daerah.
  • Masalah hubungan pusat dan daerah berkaitan dengan PP No.38/2007 tentang pembagian urusan pemerintahan, antara pemerintah  pusat, provinsi dan pemkab/pemkot.
  • Masalah kewenangan daerah dalam melakukan perjanjian atau hubungan dengan pihak luar negeri.
  • Masalah insentif bagi investasi di daerah sehubungan dengan pajak dan non-pajak, perijinan, pertanahan dan keimigrasian.
  • Masalah sengketa antara daerah dengan investor asing seperti Churcil Mining, KPC, Newmont, Cepu, dll.
  • Masalah perijinan di daerah kaitannya dengan implementasi PTSP.
  • Masalah jaminan dan perlindungan investasi di daerah khususnya ekspropiasi, nasionalisasi, konfiskasi, pengembalian modal dan keuntungan, mata uang, perlakuan yang sama, dll.
  • Masalah-masalah ketenagakerjaan seperti outsourcing, UMP/UMK, mogok kerja, etos dan produktivitas kerja, serikat pekerja, dll.
  • Sejumlah pengelolaan daerah yang masih mengganjal masuknya investasi seperti:akses terhadap lahan usaha masih bermasalah ; satu dari tiga pelaku usaha mengaku kesulitan untuk mendapatkan lahan, sekitar satu dari empat pengusaha mengalami kesulitan dalam mengurus ijin peruntukan lahan.
  • Infrasruktur masih buruk, aspek yang pengelolaannya menjadi kewenangan pemerintah daerah yaitu kualitas jalan, air bersih dan lampu penerangan jalan, masih dipandang buruk oleh lebih dari 40% persen pelaku pengusaha. Data tersebut merupakan hasil research KPPOD di tata kelola ekonomi daerah 2011 ke pelaku usaha di 245 kabupaten / kota di Indonesia.

Standardisasi Investasi

Melihat masih tingginya permasalahan yang menghalangi masuknya para penanam modal dalam negeri maupun asing, maka sangat diperlukan standarisasi bagi seluruh daerah agar memiliki kualitas daerah yang layak investasi. Di sinilah diperlukan adanya indeks investasi yang mengukur kesiapan suatu daerah untuk masuknya investor ke dalamnya.

Dibandingkan dengan indeks harga yang didefinisikan sebagai ukuran untuk menunjukan perubahan harga dari satu periode ke periode yang lain, maka indeks investasi merupakan ukuran perubahan kualitas iklim investasi sebuah daerah. Semakin tinggi nilai indeks investasi sebuah daerah semakin baik kondisi iklim investasi daerah tersebut.

Indeks investasi memberikan juga daftar indikator investasi yang lemah di sebuah daerah, yang seyogyanya dapat segera dibenahi oleh daerah untuk membuat indeks investasi menjadi baik kembali.

Bulan Mei 2013 Indonesia memiliki 409 kabupaten, 1 kabupaten administrasi, 93 kota, dan 5 kota administrasi. Dengan total pemerintah daerah sebanyak itu sangat memerlukan keseragaman kualitas iklim investasi. Dengan keragaman kondisi masing-masing daerah, indeks investasi akan memudahkan pantauan regulator, investor dan masyarakat sendiri bagi kepentingan masing-masing. Karena kemajemukan serta kekhasan negara kita dari berbagai sisinya, maka indeks investasi untuk Indonesia tidak bisa diambil langsung dari konsep indeks yang digunakan di negara lain.

Studi Indeks Investasi

Lembaga Pengembangan Bisnis dan Investasi Daerah (Lepmida) sebagai konsultan investasi daerah – dari pengalamannya di lapangan – menemukan pentingnya setiap daerah memiliki indeks investasi. Lepmida meminta Vibiz Research Center untuk melakukan  study atas 34 provinsi dan kabupaten di dalamnya untuk menyusun parameter apakah yang paling tepat dalam mengukur indeks investasi. Vibiz Research Center  setelah melakukan pengamatan sejak tahun 2010 hingga 2013 menemukan empat belas parameter yang diperlukan, yang pengukurannya menggunakan metode penelitian langsung terhadap data primer.

Parameter-parameter tersebut mencakup peraturan dan regulasi, kelangsungan lingkungan hidup, keselamatan dan keamanan, kesehatan dan kebersihan, prioritas pada sektor investasi, infrastruktur transportasi udara, infrastruktur transportasi darat dan laut, infrastruktur investasi, infrastruktur pendukung, keunggulan harga dalam rata-rata industri, sumber daya manusia, keterbukaan masyarakat terhadap investor, kekayaan alam, serta kekayaan budaya.

Apabila sebuah daerah memiliki nilai yang positif tinggi dalam Vibiz Regional Investment Index (VRII) standard maka daerah tersebut dapat dengan meyakinkan mengundang investor masuk dan juga didukung dalam mempromosikan daerah tersebut kepada para investor. Kegunaan VRII untuk menata kelayakan investasi sebuah daerah menjadi begitu jelas dan melakukan eksekusi keputusan dengan tepat.

Indeks ini juga akan dapat membantu dalam melakukan pemetaan dan perbandingan yang jelas akan kesiapan investasi antar daerah. Dengan demikian, pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah, lembaga legislatif sampai publik pun dapat melakukan analisis penilaian yang setara dan memiliki arahan jelas untuk pengalokasian sumber daya untuk menembus sejumlah hambatan investasi antar daerah. Hal ini sekaligus juga memberikan potret dan fokus dalam penanganan koordinasi pembangunan daerah serta intra daerah.

Setelah hampir 15 tahun menjalani era desentralisasi, sudah waktunya, sebelum terlambat telalu jauh, indeks investasi daerah diterapkan dan dikembangkan untuk optimalisasi potensi seluruh daerah di negeri kita, Indonesia. Masakan cuma kita simpulkan bahwa desentralisasi telah membawa kesejahteraan, tapi hanya bagi segelintir orang saja: koruptor di daerah?

Metodologi Indeks Investasi dan Daya Saing Daerah

Selain dari Faktor Ekonomi, maka VRII juga memadukan dengan Indeks Daya Saing Daerah yang pada dasarnya ada pengukuran tingkat efesiensi lembaga daerah, kebijakan dan faktor-faktor yang menentukan produktifitas di daerah, yang secara tehnis merupakan kesimpulan dari development factor – driven economies, efficiency – driven economies dan innovation – driven economies.

Dalam hal ini akan terlihat dari pilar ekonomi daerah yang merupakan daya tarik investasi diantaranya :

Hal ini untuk mencapai empat faktor yang perlu dimiliki oleh Daerah untuk memiliki tingkat Indeks Investasi yang kompetitif dan bisa menarik minat investasi, yang secara sederhana harus mencakup :

1. Kinerja Ekonomi (Economic Performance) : ekonomi daerah, kemampuan menembus pasar internasional, menarik investasi asing, system tenaga kerja dan transparansi harga.

2. Efisiensi Pemerintah Daerah (Government Effieciency) : anggaran pemda, kebijakan fiscal, kerangka kelembagaan, kebijakan usaha dan sosial.

3. Efisiensi Usaha (Business Efficiency) : produktifitas, pasar tenaga kerja, kondisi keuangan, praktek management, nilai-nilai budaya dan perilaku usaha.

4. Infrastruktur (Infrastructure) : ketersediaan infrastruktur dasar, infrastruktur tehnologi, infrastruktur ilmiah, kesehatan, pendidikan dan lingkungan alam.

Dengan diterapkannya VRII ini, maka secara transparan baik pemerintah daerah, pelaku usaha, para penanam modal dan para pengamat ekonomi akan mimiliki perangkat untuk melakukan penilaian dalam pengambilan keputusan yang lebih tepat. Diharapkan dengan perangkat ini akan memicu pertumbuhan investasi di daerah dan juga penilaian dari perbankan, pasar modal dan bahkan pengelolaan anggaran pemerintah bisa lebih transparan.

bernhard-bsr

Penulis Bernhard Sumbayak adalah Founder Lembaga Pengembangan Manajemen dan Investasi Daerah (Lepmida) dan Vibiz Consulting.

(Bernhard Sumbayak/fh/FH/bd)

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