Analisis Determinan Kemiskinan Kota Dalam Perspektif Gender dan Migrasi

Pada kondisi perekonomian yang berjalan normal, ekonomi Jakarta dapat dipastikan akan selalu tumbuh lebih tinggi dari yang dicapai oleh perekonomian Indonesia secara keseluruhan. Namun tidak demikian halnya dengan kecepatan penurunan tingkat kemiskinan. Tingkat penurunan penduduk miskin (P0) di Jakarta lebih lambat dari nasional. Bila selama tahun 2007 hingga tahun 2013 rata-rata penurunan tingkat kemiskinan di Indonesia sekitar 6,1 persen per tahun maka selama periode yang sama di Provinsi DKI Jakarta rata-rata penurunan tingkat kemiskinannya hanya sekitar 3,6 persen per tahun. Ini menunjukkan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terjadi di Jakarta tidak cukup efektif untuk dapat menurunkan tingkat kemiskinan di Jakarta.

Selain itu, pertumbuhan ekonomi yang dicapai oleh Jakarta ternyata lebih dinikmati oleh penduduk yang berpendapatan tinggi dan tidak menyentuh penduduk berpendapatan rendah (kaum miskin). Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tingkat kedalaman (P1) dan keparahan (P2) kemiskinan di Jakarta yang fluktuatif dan cenderung meningkat. Tahun 2011 menjadi anomali fenomena kemiskinan di Jakarta. Pada tahun 2011 pertumbuhan ekonomi DKI Jakarta tumbuh 6,7 persen (yang tertingi selama 10 tahun terakhir) namun proposi penduduk miskin justru bertambah dari 3,48 persen di tahun 2010 menjadi 3,69 persen di tahun 2011. Selain itu tingkat kesenjangan pengeluaran penduduk miskin dari garis kemiskinan juga bertambah parah, yang ditunjukkan dengan perubahan nilai P1 dari 0,45 pada tahun 2010 menjadi 0,60 pada tahun 2011. Demikian juga dengan tingkat ketimpangan pengeluaran penduduk miskin (P2), bertambah dari 0,11 pada tahun 2010 menjadi 0,15 pada tahun 2011.

Migrasi dan kemiskinan memiliki kaitan yang erat, karena migrasi terkadang menjadi salah satu alternatif untuk bisa keluar dari kemiskinan. Pendatang berpenghasilan rendah dan yang masih mencari pekerjaan serta mengharapkan akses terhadap layanan yang lebih baik tentunya akan mencari pemukiman di lokasi yang murah dengan biaya transportasi yang juga murah. Pemukiman semacam ini di Jakarta seringkali bermunculan di wilayah yang dekat dengan lokasi industri atau pusat perdagangan/bisnis. Pilihan ini dibuat mengingat biaya transportasi yang dibutuhkan untuk menuju tempat kerja di Jakarta pastinya akan lebih mahal bila harus dilaju dari daerah pinggir kota (bodetabek).

Di lain sisi, kemiskinan dan perempuan adalah dua hal yang juga tidak dapat dipisahkan. Pada saat wanita mengalami kemiskinan dapat dikatakan keluarganya juga ikut tidak sejahtera. Hal ini dikarenakan, oleh sebagian masyarakat, ruang gerak perempuan masih dibatasi oleh sejumlah nilai-nilai sosial, sehingga mempersulit kaum perempuan dalam meningkatan kondisi sosial ekonomi maupun dalam mendapatkan akses terhadap pelayanan umum. ILO (2004) menyatakan bahwa penting untuk memutuskan mata rantai kemiskinan melalui program yang bersifat sensitive gender karena hasil riset menunjukkan bahwa kemiskinan di kalangan wanita lebih mempengaruhi kesehatan dan perkembangan anak daripada pria. Wanita cenderung untuk lebih banyak membelanjakan uang mereka untuk keluarga, khususnya anak-anak. Sehingga, ketika wanita miskin mendapatkan peningkatan pendapatan maka anak-anak akan ikut menikmati perbaikan kualitas hidup. Dengan kata lain, dengan mengurangi jumlah wanita miskin maka akan memunculkan efek berganda dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan anak yang menjadi generasi masa depan.

Adalah sangat penting untuk melakukan identifikasi karakteristik kemiskinan perempuan dan kemiskinan penduduk migran di Jakarta.serta mengetahui variabel yang signifikan berkaitan dengan kemiskinan rumah tangga dengan kepala rumah tangga perempuan (RTP) dan pada rumah tangga migran di Jakarta.

Hasil dari Identifikasi  karakteristik yang dilakukan diatas adalah :

  1. Karakteristik utama rumah tangga miskin dan hampir miskin perempuan (RTP) adalah berstatus sebagai orang tua tunggal, kepala rumah tangga berpendidikan lebih rendah dari kepala rumah tangga laki-laki (RTL), ukuran rumah tangga lebih kecil, Dependency ratio lebih kecil, Proporsi jumlah anggota rumah tangga yang bekerja lebih kecil, jam kerja lebih pendek dari RTL, dan sebagai penerima/peserta program perlindungan sosial.
  2. Karakteristik utama rumah tangga miskin dan hampir miskin migran adalah berstatus kawin, kepala rumah tangga berpendidikan lebih baik dari kepala rumah tangga non migran, ukuran rumah tangga lebih kecil, Dependency ratio lebih besar, Proporsi jumlah anggota rumah tangga yang bekerja lebih besar, jam kerja lebih panjang dari kepala rumah tangga non migran, memiliki kesadaran administrasi yang lebih buruk (kepemilikan KTP DKI Jakarta), dan bukan penerima/peserta program perlindungan sosial.
  3. Faktor yang menjadi determinan kemiskinan perempuan di Jakarta adalah Jumlah ART, Dependecy Ratio, Status pekerjaan (Informal), Luas lantai  < 8m2 , Jenis lantai rumah, Sanitasi buruk, Usia KRT diatas 64 tahun, Pendidikan kepala rumah tangga, Proporsi jumlah ART yang Bekerja, Status Kepemilikan Rumah, Akses terhadap Air bersih, dan Penerima manfaat program perlindungan sosial.
  4. Faktor yang menjadi determinan kemiskinan migran di Jakarta adalah Jumlah ART, Dependecy Ratio, Status pekerjaan (Informal), Luas lantai  < 8m2 , Jenis lantai rumah, Sanitasi buruk, Usia KRT diatas 64 tahun, Pendidikan kepala rumah tangga, Proporsi jumlah ART yang Bekerja, Akses terhadap Air bersih

Sedangkan saran dari penelitian in adalah :
a.  Mendorong pelaksanaan Program Perlindungan Sosial yang telah ada dengan lebih efisien, efektif, dan terintegrasi melalui penerapan pengarusutamaan penanggulangan kemiskinan dan kerentanan (PPKK).

b.  Prioritas pengentasan kemiskinan pada pada faktor-faktor yang menjadi determinan kemiskinan di Jakarta, antara lain:
· Perbaikan kondisi fisik lingkungan tempat tinggal, melalui integrasi program PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan dan PPMK bina fisik
· Pengembangan sektor informal, terutama pada sector perdagangan, transportasi, dan jasa perorangan yang banyak digeluti oleh penduduk miskin , melalui regulasi yang melindungi sekaligus menata keberadaan sector informal. Selain itu tentunya juga dengan dukungan finansial dan memberikan kemudahan akses terhadap modal dan kredit kerja untuk mengembangkan usaha, terutama bagi pengusaha perempuan.
· Peningkatan keterampilan penduduk miskin, terutama RTP, melalui pelatihan-pelatihan ketrampilan, seperti ketrampilan memasak, menjahit, menyulam, dan ketrampilan lainnya, sehingga program pemberdayaan perempuan tidak hanya mementingkan aspek peningkatan pendapatan rumah tangga namun juga mempertimbangkan aspek kultural yang menempatkan perempuan sebagai ibu rumah tangga yang bertanggungjawab atas urusan rumah tangga,
·  Mempermudah pengurusan administrasi kependudukan bagi warga tidak mampu.

c. Pengembangan sistem pendidikan bagi warga miskin sebagai investasi jangka panjang program pengentasan kemiskinan.

d. Keberadaan penduduk migran memang tidak mungkin dapat dihilangkan sepenuhnya, namun dapat dikendalikan dengan mengembangkan kerjasama dengan pemerintah provinsi lain berupa kerjasama ekonomi (pengembangan sector pertanian, agro-industri, dan indutri kecil/kerajinan rumah tangga yang dapat membuka lebih banyak kesempatan kerja di provinsi lain. Bila ini berhasil tentunya akan dapat menahan penduduk untuk bermigrasi ke Jakarta. Sebagai contoh dengan mendorong aktifnya kegiatan Badan Kerjasama Pembangunan Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, dan Cianjur (BKSP Jabodetabekjur).

Beberapa data yang digunakan penulisan  ini berasal dari Basis Data Terpadu (BDT) yang dikelola oleh Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (TNP2K) dan Data Migrasi hasil pendataan program perlindungan social (PPLS) 2011.

Secara umum, faktor ekonomi menjadi ciri kemiskinan kota di Jakarta adalah kepala rumah tangga bekerja di sector informal karena minimnya pendidikan dan kertampilan yang dimiliki (Hanya sampai SMA). Hal ini berpengaruh pada kualitas hidup keluarga yang meliputi tempat tinggal yang masih terbuat dari bangunan semi permanent, kebutuhan air bersih yang belum tercukupi hingga  program perlindungan sosial, seperti Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH), hingga Penerima Beras Raskin, dan peserta jamkesmas merupakan suatu indikator bahwa rumah tangga tersebut umumnya adalah rumah tangga miskin. Hal ini sangat berhubungan  kemiskinan  rumah kepala rumah tangga perempuan (RTP) karena jumlah perempuan lebih banyak dibandingkan jumlah Laki-laki.

Penulis adalah Favten Ari Pujiastuti dari mahasiswa MPKP – Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia

Editor: Eni Ariyanti

Pic : ant

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