Pekerjaan Rumah Jokowi-JK : Gunung Regulasi Indonesia

Babak akhir pemilu presiden 2014 yaitu sidang MK sudah berakhir hari ini (21 Agustus 2014), MK memutuskan menolak seluruh permohonan Prabowo-Hatta dan dengan demikian Jokowi-JK sudah resmi sebagai presiden dan wakil presiden terpilih pilpres 2014. Banyak pekerjaan rumah menanti Jokowi-JK, salah satunya adalah gunung regulasi Indonesia yang harus diatasi agar menerbitkan kepercayaan, rasa nyaman para investor yang memang sangat ingin berinvestasi di Indonesia.

Dari 189 negara yang di survey oleh World Bank dalam laporan ‘Doing Business 2014’ maka Indonesia menduduki ranking ke 120, jauh dibawah negara tetangganya Malaysia yang berada di peringkat ketiga, sangat jauh dari Singapura yang berada di peringkat pertama, bahkan masih di bawah Vietnam yang baru bangkit ekonominya, juga masih di bawah Papua New Guinea, sebuah peringkat yang masih jauh dari status ekonomi Indonesia yang masuk dalam negara G-20, sebuah kelompok ekonomi yang diduduki oleh negara-negara maju.

Kondisi kemudahan bisnis di Indonesia yang peringkatnya menunjukan kurang disukainya Indonesia oleh investor,  menunjukan kenyataan yang harus dihadapi untuk menggapai mimpi menjadi negara maju yang diukir oleh analis konsultan kelasa dunia seperti McKinsey yang memastikan Indonesia menjadi negara dengan ekonomi peringkat ke 7 terbesar dunia.

Doing Business 2014 adalah sebuah survey bagaimana kemudahan regulasi bisnis dari sebuah negara, semakin tinggi peringkatnya, semakin mudah berbisnis di negara itu. Hal ini tidak berarti bahwa negara tanpa regulasi ditetapkan sebagai negara tertinggi peringkatnya tapi adalah negara yang dapat mengelola regulasi yang memfasilitasi interaksi dalam dunia usaha dan melindungi kepentingan masyarakat tanpa membatasi perkembangan dunia usaha. Dengan kata lain regulasi dengan kelembagaan yang kuat namun biaya transaksi yang rendah.

Keseimbangan ini membuat dunia usaha berkembang dan ada regulasi yang efisien yang menghindarkan beban yang berlebihan pada dunia usaha. Regulasi yang demikian ini memberikan dampak pesatnya ketertarikan dunia usaha untuk melakukan bisnis di sebuah negara.

Regulasi Dan Siklus Dunia Usaha

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Dalam bagan hubungan regulasi dan siklus dunia usaha, digambarkan apa saja pengaruh regulasi pada setiap tahap siklus hidup dunia usaha. Nampak pada tahap start up perlu ditinjau dua regulasi ; yaitu memulai bisnis, mempekerjakan pegawai. Tahap kedua mendapatkan lokasi : ijin pembangunan pabrik, mendapatkan listrik, dan mendaftarkan properti. Tahap mendapatkan pembiayaan , regulasi yang mempengaruhi adalah bagaimana mendapatkan kredit dan melindungi investor. Tahap daily operation ; yang mempengaruhi adalah bagaimana membayar pajak dan perdagangan di dalam dan di luar negri. Kondisi bila ada masalah juga memerlukan regulasi bagaimana menegakan kontrak (enforcing contract) dan bagaimana mencairkan kebekuan (resolving insolvency) .

Pengukuran pengaruh regulasi terhadap setiap tahap dunia usaha menjadi proses pengukuran yang jelas menggambarkan bagaimana kemudahan-kemudahan diberikan di dalamnya. Sebagai contoh bagaimana hasil survey di Indonesia maka tabel berikut ini menjelaskan posisi Indonesia :

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Dari indikator-indikator diatas terlihat sebagai contoh untuk mengurus ijin pendirian bisnis di Indonesia memerlukan 48 hari, ijin pembangunan pabrik 158 hari mendapatkan listrik 101 hari, angka-angka ini lebih rendah bila dibandingkan Malaysia yang hanya perlu 5 hari untuk pendirian bisnis, 130 hari untuk pembangunan pabrik, 32 hari untuk mendapatkan listrik.

Indonesia terus melakukan perbaikan dalam regulasi, World Bank mencatat kemajuan dalam proses pemberian kredit, dan perlindungan terhadap investor, namun perbaikan-perbaikan di banyak hal masih menjadi pekerjaan rumah yang masih segunung tinggi nya, dan membutuhkan kerja keras karena kondisi geografi Indonesia yang sangat luas terdiri dari 17 ribu pulau dan 500 lebih kabupaten, namun ini adalah keunggulan Indonesia yang berbeda-beda namun satu. World Bank menawarkan sebuah metodologi yang disebut SMART dalam menata regulasi:

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Pemaparan kondisi Indonesia oleh World Bank membuat kita perlu melakukan penataan regulasi di setiap tahapan dalam memberikan kenyamanan ber bisnis di Indonesia. Kendati regulasi Indonesia masih memerlukan penataan, namun menurut pendekatan parameter VRII, Indonesia masih akan memiliki daya tarik tersendiri karena kekayaan alamnya dan juga jumlah penduduk yang termasuk peringkat ke empat terbesar di dunia. Selain itu menurut Kristanto Nugroho, Deputy Chairman Vibiz Group, penataan regulasi juga harus memperhatikan perbandingan kepemilikan nasional dan asing agar Indonesia tetap menjadi tuan di negri sendiri.

Ide Jokowi-JK untuk menggunakan teknologi dalam mengatasi gunung regulasi perlu untuk segera diimplementasikan, dengan penggunaan e-government akan membuat simplifikasi rangkaian ijin dan regulasi yang sering menimbulkan ekonomi biaya tinggi. Kecepatan dijamin akan meningkat dan transparansi akan terjadi saat e-government diterapkan yang membuat seluruh proses regulasi pemerintah dijalankan dengan bersih

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Penulis Fadjar Ari Dewanto adalah Direktur Lembaga Pengembangan Manajemen dan Investasi Daerah (Lepmida)

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