Tantangan Perikanan Indonesia

Indonesia berlimpah dengan berbagai jenis ikan, apalagi sejak pemerintah gencar meledakkan kapal asing penangkap ikan. Menteri Perikanan Susi Pudjiastuti mendapatkan pujian dari banyak pihak termasuk dari Leonardo DiCaprio, aktor dan aktivis lingkungan atas langkah-langkah sang menteri dalam pemberantasan pencuri ikan dan mengelola perikanan secara transparan. DiCaprio memuji sang menteri di acara World Oceans Day 2017 di kantor Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB), New York.

Setelah pemerintah memberantas pencurian ikan, saat ini Indonesia memiliki kelebihan pasokan ikan untuk dalam negeri, dan menurut Direktur pengembangan investasi Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan (KKP) Anang Noegroho, Indonesia memiliki kesempatan untuk pengeloaan ikan yang lebih besar saat ini. Tantangan yang dihadapi sekarang adalah bagaimana memperkenalkan ikan Indonesia pada pasar dunia. Indonesia memiliki udang, tuna dan kerang yang merupakan kebutuhan pasar Eropa, hanya bagaimana saluran pemasaran dan distribusi menuju pasar internasional dan sejumlah permasalahan lainnya merupakan tantangan bagi para pemasok ikan Indonesia.

Disisi lain para perusahaan ritel modern menghadapi kendala dalam hal pasokan ikan ke dalam toko mereka. Minimnya mitra yang layak dalam bidang perikanan, kesulitan dalam pasokan yang keberlanjutan dan kualitas  yang baik  dengan harga yang  pantas (reasonable price). Termasuk juga jangka waktu pembayaran yang diminta para nelayan tidak adaptive (tidak sesuai) dengan industri ritel, persoalan lain yang timbul adalah tidak cukup (jeleknya) persoalan infrastruktur dan logistik.

Kondisi perikanan di Indonesia juga memiliki beberapa tantangan antarta lain: belum jelasnya standar kualitas dan kemasan, tidak adanya struktur (swasta atau koperasi) yang jelas dalam hal pengelompokan para nelayan. Tidak adanya arus kas (cash flow) sehingga hal itu membuat para nelayan belum menjadi mitra bisnis riil, tidak adanya logistik yang layak untuk melayani bisnis ritel. Terlalu banyaknya middle men yang mengakibatkan hilangnya/turunnya laba. Para nelayan tidak mengerti apa yang diinginkan dari usaha ritel modern, teknik pertanian yang digunakan belum tergolong tinggi (not mastered).

Sejumlah tantangan ini tentunya perlu diselesaikan dengan serius bersama-sama seluruh stakeholder, dalam hal ini pemerintah, perusahaan dan masyarakat perikanan. Sebagai contoh Carrefour pemain pasar ritel Indonesia memiliki program Carrefour Quality Line yang mendunia untuk membawa produk lokal masuk ke dalam standard pasar dunia. Melalui program seperti ini tantangan yang dihadapi dalam perikanan Indonesia akan diselesaikan secara tuntas sebab berorientasi pada kepuasan pelanggan khususnya di pasar Eropa. Diperlukan juga nelayan yang fokus pada konsumen, melayani ekspektasi konsumen, menawarkan harga terbaik, kualitas terbaik, pelayanan terbaik (hantaran, kuantitas, level layanan), memiliki bisnis yang bernilai jual; termasuk didalamnya adalah pasokan yang berkelanjutan, ikan yang ramah lingkungan, produk yang mengandung nilai sosial bagi penduduk sekitarnya.

Fadjar 2

Penulis Fadjar Ari Dewanto adalah Advisor Lepmida (Lembaga Pengembangan Manajemen dan Investasi Daerah)

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