Infrastruktur Indonesia Era Jokowi

Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi) mulai berkuasa pada tahun 2014 menjanjikan peningkatan belanja yang besar untuk membangun jalan, bandara, jembatan dan pelabuhan. Meskipun kemajuan yang lamban dari perkiraan, anggaran infrastruktur negara terus meningkat menjadi Rp 387 triliun (sekitar 30 miliar dolar Amerika) pada tahun 2017, dari Rp 317 triliun di tahun sebelumnya, dan infrastruktur akan tetap menjadi prioritas anggaran setidaknya sampai 2020, demikian tertulis dalam rencana jangka menengah Indonesia.

Indonesia memiliki potensi pertumbuhan sangat besar, namun terhambat oleh investasi kurang matang selama beberapa dekade di bidang infrastruktur.

RATA-RATA PERTUMBUHAN 2012-2016

sumber: PwC 2017

Sampai sekarang, pemerintah Indonesia sangat bergantung pada perusahaan milik negara untuk memberikan proyek, tapi ini berubah. Lebih dari 60 persen bank umum berharap dapat meningkatkan keterlibatan mereka dalam pembiayaan infrastruktur Indonesia pada tahun 2017, dan setidaknya sepertiga dari pembiayaan infrastruktur masa depan diharapkan berasal dari sektor swasta, menurut survei PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Lima PPP pertama di luar sektor jalan tol dan sektor listrik telah mencapai financial closing pada tahun 2016, dan jumlah proyek PPP dalam pipeline terus bertumbuh.

“Isu tetap ada-ketersediaan keuangan mata uang lokal, struktur KPS yang kuat, tim bank yang memahami pembiayaan proyek dan industri yang terlibat – namun peluangnya terus meningkat,” tulis PwC dalam laporan 2017 tentang perbankan Indonesia.

Rencana Pemerintah

Rencana pembangunan infrastruktur pemerintah mengaju pada RPJMN 2014-2019. Dalam RPJMN tersebut, sebagian dari proyek-proyek tersebut dikategorikan sebagai Proyek Strategi Nasional (PSN) yang kemudian menjadi proyek prioritas nasional. Terdapat 245 PSN yang dikelompokan dalam 5 fungsi yang berbeda. 115 PSN berfungsi untuk infrastruktur konektivitas, 54 PSN bendungan, 30 PSN Kawasan, 12 PSN energi dan PSN lainnya ada 34. Untuk pembiayaan seluruh Proyek Strategi Nasional, pemerintah mengkalkulasi angka hingga Rp 4197 triliun. Diperkirakan 12 persen dari kebutuhan akan dicukupi dari APBN sebesar Rp. 525 triliun. Perusahaan milik negara akan membiayai 30 persen dari anggaran sebesar Rp. 1.258 trilliun dan swasta sebesar Rp. 2.414 triliun atau 58 persen dari kebutuhan.

Peran Swasta

Terlihat bahwa peran swasta memiliki porsi yang paling besar dibandingkan sumber pendanaan lainnya. Kedepannya, selain kepastian hukum, potensi pembiayaan dari swasta dapat ditingkatkan dengan adanya kerjasama yang saling menguntungkan dan model pembiayaan yang menarik. Ada beberapa jalur investasi alternatif yang potensial menarik investasi swasta seperti: Reksadana Penyertaan Terbatas (RDPT), Kontrak Investasi Kolektif Efek Beragun Aset (KIK-EBA), Dana Investasi Infrastruktur Berbentuk Kontrak Investasi Kolektif (DINFRA) dan Pembiayaan Infrastruktur Non-Anggaran Pemerintah (PINA).

Peran Perbankan sangat dibutuhkan dalam mendorong sektor swasta terjun dalam investasi infrastruktur. Perbankan bisa memberikan solusi untuk konsultasi dan pendanaan penuh sebagai sponsor dan pemilik proyek infrastruktur. Bank juga bisa menjadi penasehat proyek, penataan komersial dan keuangan, pengaturan investor ekuitas, pembiayaan hutang – termasuk financial bridging, pembiayaan obligasi dan lainnya.

Dampak Pembangunan Infrastruktur

Dari sisi sektoral, proyek infrastruktur meningkatkan daya saing Indonesia yang cukup baik bagi Indonesia. Berdasarkan indeks kompetisi global (Global competitiveness Index) yang dikeluarkan oleh World Economic Forum terlihat bahwa indeks infrastruktur Indonesia mengalami perbaikan pada tahun 2016-2017 dan periode 2017-2018. Indonesia meningkat dari posisi ke 60 menjadi ke 45.

Tahun 2013-2017, proyek-proyek infrastruktur banyak menyerap tenaga kerja konstruksi domestik, terutama proyek-proyek yang didanai oleh APBN.

Tantangan ke Depan

Tantangan yang dihadapi tidaklah sedikit, sejak mulai perencanaan hingga proyek-proyek tersebut rampung, pemerintah menghadapi beberapa tantangan. Pembebasan lahan menjadi tantangan awal, saat sebuah proyek dimulai. Pemerintah menetapkan perubahan penyusunan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW) dikeluarkan, dimana perizinan RTRW untuk proyek strategis nasional dikeluarkan oleh pusat, sehingga dapat cepat dan mengurangi birokrasi.

Komite Percepatan Penyediaan Infrastruktur Prioritas (KPPIP) juga dibentuk pemerintah untuk mengatasi masalah koordinasi, wewenang dan pengambilan keputusan.

Tantangan dalam perencanaan keuangan cukup besar dalam pembangunan infrastruktur, dibutuhkan kemampuan untuk membuat proyek-proyek infrastruktur menjadi menarik bagi swasta yang berpotensi untuk membiayai sektor ini. Kendala regulasi di pemerintahan yang setinggi gunung, juga merupakan tantangan untuk mempercepat masuknya investasi di Indonesia.

Penulis Fadjar Ari Dewanto adalah Advisor Lepmida (Lembaga Pengembangan Manajemen dan Investasi Daerah)

 

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